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Drinking Refined Deep-Sea Water Improves the Gut Ecosystem with Beneficial Effects on Intestinal Health in Humans: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial

Abstract

World health trends are focusing on a balanced food and beverage intake for healthy life. Refined deep-sea water (RDSW), obtained from deep-sea water collected offshore in Muroto (Japan), is mineral-rich drinking water. We previously reported that drinking RDSW improves human gut health. Here, we analyzed the effect of drinking RDSW on the gut ecosystem to understand this effect. This was a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Ninety-eight healthy adults were divided into two groups: RDSW or mineral water (control). The participants consumed 1 L of either water type daily for 12 weeks. A self-administered questionnaire and stool and urine samples were collected through the intervention. The following were determined: fecal biomarkers of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), five putrefactive products, and nine short-chain-fatty-acids (SCFAs) as the primary outcomes; and three urinary isoflavones and the questionnaire as secondary outcomes. In post-intervention in the RDSW group, we found increased concentrations of five SCFAs and decreased concentrations of phenol and sIgA (p < 0.05). The multiple logistic analysis demonstrated that RDSW significantly affected two biomarkers (acetic and 3-methylbutanoic acids) of the five SCFAs mentioned above (p < 0.05). Similarly, the concentrations of urinary isoflavones tended to increase in post-intervention in the RDSW group. Constipation was significantly alleviated in the RDSW group (94%) compared with the control group (60%). Drinking RDSW improves the intestinal environment, increasing fecal SCFAs and urinary isoflavones, which leads to broad beneficial effects in human.

Keywords: 

healthy liferefined deep-sea waterabdominal discomfortshort-chain-fatty-acidisoflavonegut ecosystem

Read More: Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Drinking Refined Deep-Sea Water Improves the Gut Ecosystem with Beneficial Effects on Intestinal Health in Humans: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial (mdpi.com)

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